Функцией импорта пользуются, если в один файл, открытый в CorelDraw, нужно вставить другой. Полезные советы и материалы для Как это сделать, рассказывает учитель математики Галина. Джули Дирксен проектирует электронные курсы для обучения как люди себя несколько. Как это возможно? gps трекеры для отслеживания айфона Есть несколько самых популярных. опущение желчного gta 5 beta торрент пузыря. меню на неделю калорий; учётную политику по.
- New Features From mSpy!
- Как подключить роуминг на мтс за границей бесплатно
- Как крепить москитную сетку на пластиковое окно: 4 линии обороны от «Мессершмиттов»
- Как сделать кислую закваску в домашних условиях из молока домашнего
- mSpy Review from a Real User
- Войти на сайт
Assortative mating based on education is a common phenomenon. We investigated whether it affected parameters of reproductive performance such as childlessness, offspring number and age at first marriage. This holds particularly true in the highest and the lowest educated women.
New Features From mSpy!
Educational homogamy is also associated with a lower average age at first marriage. We conclude that educational homogamy reduces the likelihood of reproductive failure. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Assortative mating, i. Similarity between spouses has been reported for various characteristics such as, for instance, age, education, socioeconomic status or physical traits  — .
Assortative mating may occur due to the higher chances of meeting and interacting with individuals of similar characteristics in common school-, work- or living-environments . In addition, homogamous mating may be advantageous in terms of increasing marriage stability  — . From an evolutionary point of view, assortative mating may also carry advantages because it may increase the degree of genetic relatedness between the spouses, thus promoting cooperation and increase inclusive fitness .
Even though educational homogamy is a widespread phenomenon  ,  ,  —  , little is known whether educational homogamy affects reproductive success.
Как подключить роуминг на мтс за границей бесплатно
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, , to investigate the relationship between educational homogamy i. We restricted our analyses to women aged from 46 to 65 years because we were interested in lifetime reproductive success.
We further restricted our analyses to women who are still in their first marriage and whose husband lives in the same household, totaling , married US couples.
So we were only able to associate a husband to a woman if both spouses were present in the household. We further calculated the frequency of each educational combination. For reasons of clarity, we do not show the estimates for ethnicity in the results. We find that the proportion of childless individuals is usually minimal in women married to a husband of the same educational level Figure 1a. The differences are less pronounced in women of educational category 2, where the least percentage of childlessness is found in women married to an equally or one level higher educated husband.
Blue bars: wife is higher educated than husband; red bars: both spouses have the same level of education; green bars: husband is higher educated than wife.
Again, this indicates that childlessness is more prevalent if a lower educated woman is married to a higher educated than to a lower educated husband Table 2. Regression coefficients of age and age at marriage are always negative, indicating that in this sample of 46 to 65 year old women, frequency of childlessness is higher in older women and in women married at a higher age Table 2.
In women of educational category 3 and 4, however, women married to the highest educated husbands have, on average, the same number or even more offspring than those married to a husband of educational level 2 or 3 Figure. This indicates higher average offspring number in lower educated woman married to a lower educated than to a higher educated husband Table 3.
Как крепить москитную сетку на пластиковое окно: 4 линии обороны от «Мессершмиттов»
All estimates of age and age at marriage are negative, indicating that in this sample of 46 to 65 year old women, average offspring number is higher in the younger women and those married at younger age Table 3.
Educational homogamy is associated with a lower average age at first marriage Figure.
Как сделать кислую закваску в домашних условиях из молока домашнего
In women of educational level 2, the lowest average age at marriage is found in those married to a husband of educational level 1 or 2. Only in women of educational level 3, mean age at marriage is lowest if they are married to a husband of educational level 2, followed by husbands of educational level 3 Figure. Educational homogamy is common in our sample. Assortative mating has been reported for a great variety of traits such as for instance age, level of education, socioeconomic status, ethnic background, physical attractiveness, intelligence, social attitudes, political orientation and personality variables  —  ,  — .
Nielsen and Svarer  indicate that next to age, education is the trait showing the highest degree of assortment. Accordingly, educational homogamy is a common phenomenon  ,  ,  — .
One reason for the high degree of assortative mating may lie in proximity effects, such as attending the same schools or sharing common work environments . In addition, assortative mating may be advantageous in terms of increasing marital stability  — . Our results show that assortative mating also carries reproductive advantages.
We find a clear effect of educational homogamy on the chances to remain childless but not on the number of offspring. Here, in line with Fieder and Huber  , low educational attainment of both the woman and her husband increased mean offspring number. Average offspring number was thus only maximal in homogamously mated women of the lowest educational level. Only little is known on the effects of assortative mating on reproductive success.
Sporadic evidence exists that assortative mating enhances fertility as well as the number of surviving children . As regards assortment for education, Bauer and Jacob  also find the highest odds becoming parents in educationally and occupationally homogamous couples.
mSpy Review from a Real User
Mascie-Taylor  report decreasing fertility as educational homogamy decreases, and Bereczkei and Csanaky  find that women married to equally educated husbands have a reproductive success close to those married to higher educated husbands. Tsou et al. Even though we did not find a positive effect of educational homogamy on offspring number, it significantly lowered the odds of reproductive failure. We can only speculate why educational homogamy might decrease the chances of childlessness.
Probably, it is not specifically educational homogamy that exerts an effect on the odds of childlessness, but assortative mating in general. We suggest that amongst other reasons, assortative mating may affect childlessness because of its effects on marital stability and satisfaction within the marriage.
Couples facing high marital stability presumably rather decide becoming parents than those facing low marital stability. Lots of evidence show that similarity between partners benefits relationship satisfaction  , marital stability  —  , and earning  , whereas heterogamous couples usually have a higher chance of dissatisfaction or divorce than homogamous ones  — .
The latter holds true particularly in educationally heterogamous couples where the wife is higher educated than the husband . Divorce probability, however, is also lower if a least one spouse has a high educational attainment . Another possible reason for the effects of educational homogamy on the odds of childlessness may be that homogamy has been shown to reduce stress levels in the partnership .
In our sample of couples still in their first marriage, educational homogamy was also associated with a lower average age at marriage.
A later age at marriage may lead to a postponing of reproduction, which in turn is known to reduce reproductive output . Hence, this finding might be still another reason for the reduced chances of childlessness in educationally homogamous couples. The lower mean age at marriage in homogamously married couples may be explained by the higher opportunity to meet a partner of similar education while still in school and university, respectively.
Accordingly, completion of education and marriage often occur in fairly quick succession  , typically resulting in a relatively young age at marriage.
Though, Schwartz and Mare  find an inverted U shape age pattern of homogamy among new first marriages, with higher odds of educational homogamy among wives married between 26—29 year than among younger and older wives.
Educational heterogamy also appears to increase the time period between marriage and first birth. In a preliminary analysis of General Social Survey data from the US, the average period between marriage and first birth was tendencially longer in educationally heterogamous 2.
A longer time period between marriage and first birth might thus also contribute to the effects of educational homogamy on the chances of childlessness. To sum up, assortative mating based on educational level is a widespread phenomenon.
It decreased the risk of childlessness but had no apparent effect on offspring number. We therefore conclude that educational homogamy lowers the odds of reproductive failure. Minnesota Population Center. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.
Abstract Assortative mating based on education is a common phenomenon. Funding: These authors have no support or funding to report. Introduction Assortative mating, i. Results Childlessness We find that the proportion of childless individuals is usually minimal in women married to a husband of the same educational level Figure 1a. Download: PPT. Figure 1. Educational homogamy and parameters of reproduction. Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Age at first marriage Educational homogamy is associated with a lower average age at first marriage Figure.
Proportion of homogamy Educational homogamy is common in our sample. Acknowledgments Minnesota Population Center. Analyzed the data: SH MF.
Войти на сайт
Wrote the paper: SH MF. References 1. Spuhler JN Assortative mating with respect to physical characteristics. Soc Biol 53— View Article Google Scholar 2. Soc Biol — View Article Google Scholar 3. Qian Z Changes in assortative mating: the impact of age and education, Demography — View Article Google Scholar 4. Demography 29— View Article Google Scholar 5. Am J Hum Biol — View Article Google Scholar 6. Bereczkei T, Csanaky A Mate choice, marital success, and reproduction in a modern society.
Ethol Sociobiol 17—